International Court: An Introduction
- The International Court of Justice- ICJ was established in 1945 by a United Nations charter and began functioning in April 1946.
- It is the principal judicial body of the United Nations located in the Peace Palace of The Hague (Netherlands).
- It is the only institution not based in New York, unlike the six major UN institutions
- It resolves legal disputes between nations and advises on legal questions specified by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies in accordance with international law.
- It consists of 193 countries and its current president is Abdulkavi Ahmed Yusuf.
(ICJ) Of the six major organs of the United Nations, it is the only one that is not located in New York (United States). Its session is always operational except for the trunks. The United Nations bears the burden of administrative expenses of this Court.
(Building of International Court at The Hague – Shanti Mahal (Peace Palace)
Member of international court of justice
There are 15 judges in the International Court of Justice, who are elected by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council for a term of nine years and can be re-elected, five of these 15 judges can be re-elected every third year. The main condition regarding the appointment of judges is that two judges cannot be elected from one country.
Dalvir Bhandari is here as an Indian judge. Dalveer Bhandari has been re-elected to the ICJ in November 2017. For his re-election to the ICJ, there was a close fight between Bhandari and Britain’s Christopher Greenwood, but Britain withdrew its candidate, leading to Bhandari’s victory. Bhandari’s term will be 9 years.
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In the United Nations General Assembly, Bhandari got 183 votes out of 193 while in the Security Council all 15 votes went in favor of India. A separate vote was held at the headquarters of the New York-based organization for this election.
|President Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf||Somalia|
|Vice-President Xue Hanqin||China|
|Judge Peter Tomka||Slovakia|
|Judge Ronny Abraham||France|
|Judge Mohamed Bennouna||Morocco|
|Judge Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade||Brazil|
|Judge Joan E. Donoghue||United States of America|
|Judge Giorgio Gaja||Italy|
|Judge Julia Sebutinde||Uganda|
|Judge Dalveer Bhandari||India|
|Judge Patrick Lipton Robinson||Jamaica|
|Judge James Richard Crawford||Australia|
|Judge Kirill Gevorgian||Russian Federation|
|Judge Nawaf Salam||Lebanon|
|Judge Yuji Iwasawa||Japan|
Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is assisted by one of its administrative organs, the “Registry”. The job of the court is to settle legal disputes and give opinions on legal questions raised by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. That is, it has two special duties: according to international law it decides on legal disputes, gives decisions on disputes between two parties and gives opinion on the request of UN units.
Its official languages are English and French. Article 93 of the United Nations Charter states that all 193 members of the United Nations have the right to get justice from this Court. However, countries that are not members of the United Nations can also appeal to get justice in this court.
Kulbhushan Jadhav Case
This court is hearing the case of Kulbhushan Jadhav, a prisoner in Pakistan on charges of espionage. Since the court of Pakistan has sentenced Kulbhushan to death on the charge of espionage, India has filed a case in the International Court of Justice.
Thus we read that the functioning of the International Court of Justice is of a very complex nature, in which one has to go through a long process to get justice. Despite the complex judicial process, the International Court of Justice has settled peace among many countries in the world by solving complex cases, which is probably why its headquarters has been named ‘Shanti Bhavan’.
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